needle penetration of petroleum waxes
has effect on structure and content of the crystalline fraction as well as the viscosity of the amorphous fraction. The crystallinity is defined as the relation of the total crystallization enthalpy of the respective wax to the ideal crystallization enthalpy of the n-alkane that is equivalent to the average C atom number of the wax. The viscosity of the amorphous phase is defined by the viscosity of the molten wax at 100°C. Both parameters have a decisive influence on the needle penetration-temperature behavior of waxes. The complete cross-linking of the crystal lattice is of great significance for the properties. Influences of wax composition on crystallinity and viscosity are discussed.
In order to study the dependence of penetration on the physical and molecular characteristics of paraffin waxes, one stage fractional crystallization has been done to separate the paraffin waxes with different characteristics by using different solvents and solvent mixtures at various fractioning temperatures. The effect of needle penetration on the physical and molecular characteristics of isolated paraffin waxes was also studied at different fractionating temperatures ranging from 20–0°C.